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Modelos animales para el estudio del estrés y las conductas depresivas

 

El estrés es un concepto relacionado con las respuestas biológicas producidas en todos los organismos vivos cuando se enfrentan a cambios ambientales, estas respuestas biológicas permiten su adaptación a ellos. El estrés crónico es un factor de riesgo importante en el desarrollo de varias enfermedades crónicas que tienen un alto impacto social y económico en los países, dentro de estas enfermedades se encuentra la depresión. A través del entendimiento de la neurobiología del estrés y del episodio depresivo es posible desarrollar mejores terapias preventivas y fármacos antidepresivos con menos efectos secundarios. Los modelos animales de estrés crónico han entregado información muy importante en este sentido, sin embargo, aún existe un porcentaje significativo de la población que no responde al tratamiento antidepresivo actual. Por esta razón, es importante destacar que mientras mas cercano sea el modelo animal a las alteraciones conductuales que se desarrollan los sujetos afectados con estrés psicosocial o un episodio depresivo, mejores resultados se obtendrán en un estudio farmacológico. Es en este punto donde esta revisión entrega una información importante en el uso de los modelos animales, ya que se analizará desde el deterioro de la memoria que se produce en el estrés crónico, hasta el modelamiento de conductas cognitivas complejas como la atención y la toma de decisiones en modelos de roedores.

 

 

Palabras claves: Modelos animales, estrés, depresión, conducta, cognición.


 

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